The speed of light in a vacuum (c) is about 300,000 kilometers per second. According to the laws of nature, we know that no object (matter), energy or information can travel faster than it-it is considered to be a fixed, restricted space of transmission All data.
The data that the satellite sends to the earth from its mission travels at the speed of light because satellites send information in the form of electromagnetic waves, and light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. If they come to us from the moon about 300,000 kilometers from the earth, they will arrive in a second. If they are from the Titans, Saturn’s moons, they will take about 71 minutes when the Titans are closest to us, and they will take about 88 minutes when they are the farthest.
The speed of light depends on the medium it passes through. For example, it passes through glass more slowly than through air, so we see light refracting in the glass. This property of light makes it possible to manufacture optical lenses.
Unless we find a way to bypass it, we may never exceed the speed limit of the speed of light. For example, traversing time and space wormholes or creating time air bubbles that will travel in time and space. In other words, the restrictions that apply to the movement of light through time and space do not apply to the movement of the time and space itself. Therefore, some distant parts of the universe can move away from us at a speed faster than the speed of light during the expansion process without violating Einstein’s theory of relativity. In fact, most of the universe we see, more than 90%, has exceeded its limit of moving away from us at the speed of light. Nevertheless, we can still see these parts because the light was emitted from them millions of years ago.
In popular science, the speed of light is the limit, and it is most often expressed as a simplified explanation of the relationship between time and space.
In the theory of relativity, space and time are not two independent attributes of the universe previously imagined by Einstein; they are interrelated and are called space-time. In that time and space, it can be represented by a coordinate system, one of which is space and the other is time. Everything always moves at the same “total” speed. For example, if we are still while moving in space, we will move at maximum speed in time. Conversely, if we move at maximum speed in space, our time speed will be zero (above or below). This is what the theory of relativity says-the faster we move in space, the slower our clock goes.
Physicist professor Dr. Sc Hrvoje Buljan of the Department of Physics of the Zagreb Institute of Science said that in order to understand this difficult subject, one needs to understand the speed of light.
“Einstein’s special theory of relativity in 1905 stated that the propagation speed of energy and matter in a vacuum cannot exceed the speed of light,” said Bourgeon.
“However, shortly after Einstein’s discovery, physicists began to pay attention to considering light wave packets, that is, wave groups of different frequencies. That is to say, we use the group velocity of light wave packets to describe their speed. In some materials, The group velocity of the light wave packet may be higher than the speed of light. The physicist Sommerfeld showed in 1910 that the front end of the rectangular wave packet cannot exceed the speed of light in vacuum. Brillouin pointed out that when the light dispersion is abnormal, the concept of group velocity is lacking. With the development of laser technology, it has become possible to create light wave packets of various complex shapes. With the development of new materials and the realization of the state of matter such as cold atomic gases or plasmas, Mon. For some time, the resolution of light wave packets And its group velocity has always aroused the interest of scientists. At first, Einstein’s theory seems to have collapsed, but detailed analysis always shows that the theory is very effective. How to explain it now?” asked Burjan.
The group velocity of light describes the rhythmic rise and fall of light wave packets. The velocity of this “wave-in-wave” can increase or decrease according to the electromagnetic environment that affects them. This speed can be higher or lower than c, and it affects how the shape of the light pulse propagates and twists as it passes through the material.
Try to imagine some light beams extending from the earth to the moon. The photons in the beam will not move faster than the light, but the waves in the wave can.