Preliminary results show that the efficiency is 71% to 77%. This hope must be confirmed in larger experiments.
A vaccine to prevent malaria? For a long time, this Holy Grail seemed inaccessible.This is not because of a lack of research: a total of more than 100 vaccine candidates have been tested in humans. Plasmodium falciparum Parasites that cause disease. So far in vain. The stakes are high: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the disease affected 229 million people worldwide in 2019 and caused 409,000 deaths, including 94% in Africa and 67% of children under 5 years of age. Just six African countries accounted for more than half of the deaths: Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Mozambique, Niger and Burkina Faso.
But in recent years, hope has been reborn.As evidenced by the latest promising results published in the magazine on April 23 Lancet : A new vaccine candidate designed by the University of Oxford (UK) showed 71% to 77% efficacy after a one-year follow-up. The trial is mainly aimed at evaluating the safety of the candidate vaccine named R21/MM. The trial was conducted in 450 children aged 5 to 17 months in Burkina Faso in the Department of Nanoro, an area subject to seasonality. The severe effects of malaria.
The children were divided into three groups by drawing lots. The first candidate to receive a malaria vaccine was boosted with a low-dose adjuvant (a compound designed to boost the immune response). The second received the same candidate vaccine with a high dose of adjuvant. Third, rabies vaccine: This “control group” serves as a reference for evaluating the effect of R21 / MM. All children received three doses of the vaccine, one month apart, the last one before the malaria season. One year later, they received the fourth booster dose.
After one year of follow-up, no serious adverse reactions were observed. The initial evaluation is promising. The calculation efficiency of the first group is 71%, and the calculation efficiency of the second group is 77%. “After twelve months of follow-up, the first malaria vaccine for children in Africa reached the 75% effective target”, The work was coordinated by Professor Adrian Hill of the University of Oxford and Professor Halidou Tinto, Regional Director of the Institute of Health Sciences (IRSS), which presided over the clinical trial, which made the authors of this work happy.
The development of a malaria vaccine is not only one way, but also difficult. “A vaccine against human parasitic diseases has never been approved, Recalling Adrian Hill (Adrian Hill). First, you have to choose from thousands of genes in the parasite [au lieu d’une dizaine de gènes seulement pour les virus], The vaccine that can trigger the best vaccine response. Then, you have to trigger very high levels of antibody production-technically this is complicated. “