Connect with us

Science

$17 billion shipwreck near Colombia is remarkably preserved, new photos reveal

Published

on

$17 billion shipwreck near Colombia is remarkably preserved, new photos reveal

According to international law, the shipwreck and everything on it belong to Spain; but Colombia's government has declared that it owns the wreck and its treasure, which is estimated to be worth $17 billion.



According to international law, the shipwreck and everything on it belong to Spain; but Colombia’s government has declared that it owns the wreck and its treasure, which is estimated to be worth $17 billion.
(Image credit: Armada de la República de Colombia)

New images of one of the world’s most valuable shipwrecks show its remarkable preservation on the seafloor off the coast of Colombia — while the search has revealed two more historic shipwrecks in the same area.

The latest photographs and video of the wreck of the San José treasure galleon were released by the Colombian navy on June 6.

The ship was loaded with an estimated $17 billion worth of gold, silver and jewels when it sank in 1708, and its wreck was only discovered in 2015. The navy used a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) to examine the wreck; its precise location is being kept a secret to deter treasure hunters.

The new images show that the wooden hull of the San José is covered in marine growth — ocean species that colonize substrate and shipwrecks — but is still remarkably intact after more than 300 years beneath the waves.

A spokesperson for the Colombian navy said cannons, coins and gold bars can be seen lying exposed on the seafloor, as well as a delicate set of porcelain tableware in perfect condition. 

Advertisement

Related: Colombia moves to salvage immense treasure from sunken Spanish galleon

In many cases the preservation is so good that the searchers can read inscriptions on the objects. “With the inscriptions discovered, it was possible to determine the manufacturing sites of the ship’s cannons: in Seville and Cádiz, in the year 1655,” said Adm. José Joaquín Amézquita, the Colombian navy’s maritime director-general, said in a statement. “You also can see the different objects of gold, including the ‘macuquinas’ [a type of coin] and the date they were minted.”

The latest photographs and video also show gold coins from the ship's cargo of treasure, now lying on the seafloor.

The latest photographs and video also show gold coins from the ship’s cargo of treasure, now lying on the seafloor. (Image credit: Armada de la República de Colombia)

(opens in new tab)

Experts think that the shipwreck and its artifacts may be so well preserved because the San José sank to a considerable depth — around 2,000 feet (600 meters) — far below the reach of the sunlight that sustains many marine organisms.

Navy experts also discovered two other wrecks on the seafloor nearby — one of a ship from the colonial period (from the arrival of the Spanish in about 1525 until the early 1800s) and the other of a roughly 200-year-old schooner. The origins of both ships are unknown.

Advertisement

Contested ownership

The San José wreck and its valuable contents are at the center of an international legal row. The Colombian government claims ownership of the shipwreck and all the treasures it contains, and the Colombian navy is monitoring the site on the seafloor, which rests near the Barú peninsula, south of Cartagena.

However, the ship belonged to the Spanish navy when it was sunk by British warships in 1708, and under international law Spain still owns the San José and everything it contains.   

In 2018, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) advised Colombia not to salvage the wreck, the Associated Press reported.

But Colombia’s government has declared that the wreck and all its treasure belong to them, and it has asked prospective salvagers to register their interest in recovering it. 

Treasure ship

According to the Spanish naval history website Todo a Babor (“All to Port”), the San José was a 62-gun galleon of the Spanish navy. In 1708, it led a treasure fleet of three warships and 14 merchant vessels from Portobelo in Panama to Cartagena, a major port city on Colombia’s Caribbean coast, where the ships intended to shelter during the approaching hurricane season before crossing the Atlantic Ocean to Europe. Historical records report that the San José galleon was laden with roughly 200 tons (180 metric tonnes) of gold, silver and jewels. 

Advertisement

But the convoy was intercepted in early June that year by British navy warships. During the ensuing battle, the San José exploded when its stores of gunpowder ignited. About 600 of the crew on board the galleon were killed.

The whereabouts of the San José wreck remained unknown until the 1980s, when an American salvage company claimed it had located the site and attempted to negotiate with the Colombian government for its recovery.

The remotely-operated underwater vehicle (ROV) that explored the San Jose wreck discovered an intact porcelain tableware set in the remains of the hull.

The remotely-operated underwater vehicle (ROV) that explored the San Jose wreck discovered an intact porcelain tableware set in the remains of the hull. (Image credit: Armada de la República de Colombia)

(opens in new tab)

Colombia’s government declined, however, and in 2015 it announced the San José wreck had been located independently by maritime archaeologists working with the Colombian navy. 

The wreck site’s considerable depth makes recovery expensive and complex; so far, no physical steps have been taken to salvage the ship or its treasure.

Advertisement

Colombia’s president, Iván Duque, said that the monitoring of the wreck by the Colombian navy would guarantee its protection as a “world heritage site.”

But he also hinted at his government’s assertion that Colombia owns the San José shipwreck and everything onboard it, adding that artifacts from the wreck would be displayed in museums.

“The idea is to recover it and have sustainable financing mechanisms for future extractions,” Duque said. “In this way the treasure, the heritage of the San José galleon, is protected.”

Originally published on Live Science.

Advertisement

Tom Metcalfe is a freelance journalist and regular Live Science contributor who is based in London in the United Kingdom. Tom writes mainly about science, space, archaeology, the Earth and the oceans. He has also written for the BBC, NBC News, National Geographic, Scientific American, Air & Space, and many others.

Read More

Advertisement
Continue Reading
Advertisement
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

Science

Tesla’s Are Safer and Here is Proof

Published

on

Tesla’s Are Safer and Here is Proof




I did some research on Tesla safety using non-Tesla data to address the issue from the AI experts. Some AI experts criticized FSD. I used US, UK government and insurance data to show Tesla is already safer and why we should expect more safety from Autopilot and FSD. I also provided context about where and how accidents and deaths occur with cars.

Are Tesla cars safer and have they saved lives ? Spoiler Yes.

Has Tesla Autopilot saved lives? Again Yes. but I will provide data.

Advertisement

Is FSD beta safe? Yes,

Is Autopilot safe? How many lives would you expect to save by superior automatic lane keeping? 20-30% of traffic deaths.

Will Full FSD be safer? Yes, and safety score can help ensure it will be.

Can Safety Scoring, Insurance and FSD get more optimal usage of FSD? Yes.

All Tesla’s come with safety features expected to reduce accidents by 30-50% (NHTSA analysis of those features)

Advertisement

Youtube videos by FSD beta users show large improvement over last 8 months. No major accidents or deaths using FSD beta with 100k users for 7 months

Insurance and government statistics in US and UK show Tesla’s are among the safest cars involved in the fewest accidents. About 40% below average in US. Very Low accidents involvement in UK (10 times less than Toyota, Ford and several others of number per 10,000 cars).

UK Car Statistics

Tesls is among the manufacturers with the least number of accidents per 10,000 models?


Morris – 16


Austin – 26


Tesla – 28


Ferrari – 39


Aston Martin – 40


Lotus – 55


Bentley – 75

This is ten times less than Ford, Toyota and Mercedes in the UK.


Tesla is willing to charge 30-60% less for those with good Tesla Safety Scores. Can motivate 60% safer driving and lower accidents. Safety Scores with Real Time Insurance pricing can motivate safer driving.

Advertisement

Safety Scoring could be adjusted to ensure FSD monitoring behavior after FSD is fully released for general usage.

Other Nextbigfuture Tesla Videos

2024 Improved Tesla Standard Range Model 3 Will Increase Sales by 50%


Tesla AI Will Supercharge Tesla Profits


Meet Kevin and Bloomberg are Wrong, Volkswagen Will Not be Number 1 in EVs in 2025


Advertisement

Tesla Real Risks, FUD, Recession and Recovery


Read More

Advertisement

Continue Reading

Science

Roe v. Wade Was Overturned. Here’s how Your Phone Could Be Used to Spy on You.

Published

on

Roe v. Wade Was Overturned. Here’s how Your Phone Could Be Used to Spy on You.

From figuring out how often you go to the bathroom to potentially being used to prosecute you, your trusty smartphone might not be so trusty in a post-Roe world.


SOPHIE BUSHWICK: If Roe v. Wade is overturned, so-called trigger laws already passed in 13 states could ban abortion in large parts of the country. Here’s how your smartphone could be used to prosecute you if you do decide to have an abortion in an area where it’s criminalized.


Advertisement

First of all, your phone is a major tracker of personal information.


It records a huge volume of data, your browsing information, location data, and payment history, that, taken together, can reveal your most intimate activities, such as how many times you go to the bathroom.


If a basic activity like reproductive healthcare becomes criminalized, experts say courts could then issue a warrant for your device, which would then reveal all of that personal information.

Advertisement


If this all sounds a little too dystopian, that’s because it is.


Even with Roe intact, digital footprints have been used against people seeking to terminate pregnancies.


Advertisement

Imagine a situation where a pregnant person is admitted to the hospital for treatment for a miscarriage.


That person’s phone could then be placed under surveillance under suspicion of having tried to induce that miscarriage.


Not only that; privacy experts warn that law enforcement could actually sidestep the need for a warrant by going directly to private companies.

Advertisement


So how would that work?


In case you didn’t know, data brokers have been collecting your personal information for years, and they sell that data for a fee.


Advertisement

Experts say there is actually precedent for law enforcement using data brokers to sidestep the Fourth Amendment.


By issuing a broad subpoena or buying information in bulk, law enforcement could crack down on a large number of people at once.


For example, they could use geofence or other location data, part of your digital footprint, to find everyone who had visited a clinic.

Advertisement


That information becomes even more revealing when it’s combined with health data.


This is yet another reason why you should check the privacy policy of your period tracking app if you use one.


Advertisement

That’s because experts warn these apps can actually identify if you’re pregnant before you know it yourself.


And yes, government officials in this country have actually charted people’s periods to determine if they were pregnant.


And know HIPAA, or the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, is not necessarily going to help you either.

Advertisement


It’s important to note that apps have no obligation to keep your data secure and private, and HIPAA does not really apply here.


Basically, your vulnerability and privacy is in the hands of the companies that develop these software apps.


Advertisement

That’s why some privacy advocates call for pressuring these companies directly to keep your data private and safe.There are still ways to protect yourself, but relying on the government or the tech industry to do so isn’t one of them.

Tags:

  • reproductive rights,
  • Reproduction,
  • surveillance,
  • technology,
  • roe v wade

Read More

Continue Reading

Science

Chimpanzees hunt for fruit in video game to test navigation skills

Published

on

Chimpanzees hunt for fruit in video game to test navigation skills

Testing how chimpanzees navigate in virtual environments could help researchers understand why they prefer certain routes in the wild over others

Life



24 June 2022

Advertisement

By Jason Arunn Murugesu

New Scientist Default Image

A chimpanzee at Leipzig Zoo

Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

Chimpanzees in a zoo have been trained to use a touchscreen to navigate a virtual environment and seek out objects. Studies like this could help us learn more about how our close relatives find their way around in the jungle.

“There’s a lot of research on the navigation of birds and bees,” says Matthias Allritz at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. “But we know very little about the navigation of most primate species.” This is largely because chimpanzees are difficult to track in the wild, Allritz says. “Primates are fast and they might go through foliage, which is difficult to follow,” he says.

Advertisement

Over several weeks, Allritz and his colleagues trained six chimpanzees at Leipzig Zoo to use a touchscreen and play a video game in which they had to navigate to a tree to find a piece of fruit. When they did this, they were rewarded with a real fruit. The chimpanzees were given 10 minutes at a time with the game until they learned how to move in the virtual environment. The primates could refuse to take part at any time and all had used touchscreens previously. None of the animals were harmed in the study, Allritz says.

Testing chimpanzees in virtual environments could give researchers a better idea about why they prefer certain routes in the wild over others. “Knowing what kind of travel routes chimpanzees typically decide can help us develop computer simulations that can estimate the shape and size of home ranges that need to be protected,” Allritz says.

In the first experiment, the chimpanzees tried multiple times to find the same tree from the same starting point. In the second experiment, they started from a different position in the virtual environment. The team wanted to see if the animals could still navigate to the tree in order to collect the virtual fruit.

With practice, all six chimps could complete both tasks. But only three improved the efficiency of their routes with practice in the first task. “There could be many reasons for this,” Allritz says. “Some chimpanzees may have been better at recognising the landmark or they may simply have been less clumsy in using the touchscreen controls.”

Allritz says the study was ultimately about proving that chimpanzees could interact with a virtual environment that looked like a real-world setting. “The chimpanzees could have just walked around in circles,” he says.

Advertisement

Jill Pruetz at the University of Texas says such experiments let us study chimpanzees in a way that can’t be done in the wild. “So in general I think that captive primate work is very worthwhile,” she says.

Journal reference: Science Advances, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abm4754

More on these topics:

  • animals
  • animal cognition

Read More

Advertisement
Continue Reading

Trending

Copyright © 2022 Newsline. Powered by WordPress.